Renal Pathophysiology Introduction




The human body consists of 60 70% fluid - an isotonic salt solution containing a variety of dissolved chemicals and cellular material. The distribution of body water between the intracellular, interstitial and intravascular compartments is tightly controlled along electrical and physiochemical lines. This control of fluid and electrolyte balance is essential to prevent the human from either drying out or drowning. The principle organ involved in this balance is the kidney. The kidney acts in tandem with a variety of neuroendocrine modulatory influences. This series of two tutorial commences with a brief description of normal renal function and then addresses the interconnection between intravascular volume and oliguria and how acute renal failure occurs. In the second tutorial we will look at a series of clinical scenarios of perioperative and critical care renal dysfunction, and explain the pathophysiology and fill in areas briefly touched on in the first tutorial.

Learning Objectives

  • To understand the principles behind normal renal function.

  • To understand the interaction between the renal and cardiovascular systems.

  • To apply physiological knowledge to interpret changes that occur due to injuries incurred during the perioperative period and in critical illness.

  • To explore potential strategies for preserving renal function under these circumstances.





Please note: these tutorials are for personal study purposes only.  They are not currently peer reviewed, and no responsibility will be taken for mistakes or inaccuracies. Reproduction of information is forbidden. All material is copyrighted by the GasWorks Group.