What is Sepsis?  References

     
       

 

         
       

  (1)   Bone RC. Toward an epidemiology and natural history of SIRS (systemic  inflammatory response syndrome). JAMA 1992; 268 (24):3452-3455.

  (2)   Bone RC. Sir Isaac Newton, sepsis, SIRS, and CARS. Crit Care Med 1996; 24(7):1125-1128.

  (3)   American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Crit Care Med 1992; 20(6):864-874.

  (4)   Dellinger RP, Bone RC. To SIRS with love. Crit Care Med 1998; 26(1):178-179.

  (5)   Vincent JL. Dear SIRS, I'm sorry to say that I don't like you.. Crit Care Med 1997; 25(2):372-374.

  (6)   Kim PK, Deutschman CS. Inflammatory responses and mediators. Surg Clin North Am 2000; 80(3):885-894.

  (7)   Casey LC. Immunologic response to infection and its role in septic shock. Crit Care Clin 2000; 16(2):193-213.

  (8)   Jackson WF. Ion channels and vascular tone. Hypertension 2000; 35(1 Pt 2):173-178.

  (9)   Quayle JM, Nelson MT, Standen NB. ATP-sensitive and inwardly rectifying potassium channels in smooth muscle. Physiol Rev 1997; 77(4):1165-1232.

(10)   Kumar A, Haery C, Parrillo JE. Myocardial dysfunction in septic shock. Crit Care Clin 2000; 16(2):251-287.

(11)   Ince C, Sinaasappel M. Microcirculatory oxygenation and shunting in sepsis and shock. Crit Care Med 1999; 27(7):1369-1377.

(12)   Hinds C, Watson D. Distributive Shock, Microcirculatory Changes. 2096: 73-74.

(13)   Symeonides S, Balk RA. Nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1999; 13(2):449-63, x.

(14)   Landry DW, Levin HR, Gallant EM, Ashton RC, Jr., Seo S, D'Alessandro D et al. Vasopressin deficiency contributes to the vasodilation of septic shock. Circulation 1997; 95(5):1122-1125.

(15)   Esmon CT. The normal role of Activated Protein C in maintaining homeostasis and its relevance to critical illness. Crit Care 2001; 5(2):S7-12.

(16)   Faust SN, Heyderman RS, Levin M. Coagulation in severe sepsis: A central role for thrombomodulin and activated protein C. Crit Care Med 2001; 29(7):S62-S68.

(17)   Grinnell BW, Joyce D. Recombinant human activated protein C: A system modulator of vascular function for treatment of severe sepsis. Crit Care Med 2001; 29(7):S53-S61.

(18)   Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, LaRosa SP, Dhainaut JF, Lopez-Rodriguez A et al. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 2001; 344(10):699-709.

(19)   Fein AM, Calalang-Colucci MG. Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Clin 2000; 16(2):289-317.

(20)   Marshall JC, Christou NV, Horn R, Meakins JL. The microbiology of multiple organ failure. The proximal gastrointestinal tract as an occult reservoir of pathogens. Arch Surg 1988; 123(3):309-315.

(21)   Marshall JC, Christou NV, Meakins JL. The gastrointestinal tract. The "undrained abscess" of multiple organ failure. Ann Surg 1993; 218(2):111-119.

(22)   Marik PE. Total splanchnic resuscitation, SIRS, and MODS. Crit Care Med 1999; 27(2):257-258.

(23)   Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. N Engl J Med 2000; 342(18):1301-1308.

(24)   Webb HH, Tierney DF. Experimental pulmonary edema due to intermittent positive pressure ventilation with high inflation pressures. Protection by positive end- expiratory pressure. Am Rev Respir Dis 1974; 110(5):556-565.

(25)   Dreyfuss D, Saumon G. From ventilator-induced lung injury to multiple organ dysfunction? Intensive Care Med 1998; 24(2):102-104.

(26)   Rangel-Frausto MS, Pittet D, Costigan M, Hwang T, Davis CS, Wenzel RP. The natural history of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A prospective study. JAMA 1995; 273(2):117-123.

         
                   
       

         
     


THIS TUTORIAL BY PATRICK NELIGAN MD, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA

       
       

 

Please note: these tutorials are for personal study purposes only.  They are not currently peer reviewed, and no responsibility will be taken for mistakes or inaccuracies. Reproduction of information is forbidden. All material is copyrighted by the GasWorks Group.